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The Typewriter Revolution:
A Typist's Companion for the 21st Century

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Here are some typewriter user's manuals and service manuals that have been converted to PDF format by myself and other collectors. 

Special thanks to Nick Bodemer, Bryan Kravitz, Robert Messenger, Ted Munk, Jon Olivarez, John-Richard Pagan, Mark Petersen, Paul Robert, Erin Sayer, Alan Seaver, John E. Simmons, Nick Tauriainen, Piotr Trumpiel, Peter Weil and the Weil Typewriter Archives, Tyler Anderson, David O. Born, Simon Claessen, Gigi Clark, Freda Dahl-Litman, Michael Davenport, Will Davis, Guillermo Fernández Boán, Jude Forler, Joji Furukawa, Miguel García, Steve Kuterescz, John Munroe, Lowell Plum, Mark Rosenzweig, Paul Sath, Dale Schellenger, Bryan Sherwood, John E. Simmons, Natalie Tan, David Brechbiel, Ed Lamar, Ping Amranand, Alton Gansky, Alfred Kaltenecker, Don Feldman, and the good people at The Portable Typewriter Forum.

These manuals are in English unless otherwise indicated.

For other manuals, visit Georg Sommeregger's site (manuals are mostly in German),
Machines of Loving Grace (partially mirrored here),
 Office Machine Americana (selling printed copies of many user's and service manuals),
or ask on one of the online typewriter groups.

On you can find manuals for a variety of electronic typewriters made by Brother, Smith-Corona, Lexmark, and others.

You can also download useful literature if you become a Typewriter Hunter on The Typewriter Database.
The Database's collection of repair manuals is open to all.

An excellent collection of print-on-demand repair manuals is offered by Ted Munk on Bookpatch.

User's manuals


First Aid for Typewriters: advice from Popular Science, May 1941

Typewriter Care: a Federal Work Improvement Program pamphlet from 1945. Good advice on caring for office typewriters of the day.

Typewriter Headquarters Catalogue, 1897: a dealer's brochure with information about several models of the day. Courtesy of Michael Davenport.

By make

Adler Automatic (English, French, German, Spanish)
Adler Favorit (German)
Adler Gabriele 10, 25, 35 (English, French, Dutch, Spanish)
Adler J2 and J4
Adler J2 and J5
Adler Primus and Favorit
Adler Tippa
Adler Tippa S (English, French, Dutch, Spanish)
Adler Universal
Adler Universal (German)

Alpina (another version)

American index no. 2 (ca 1895-96)

American Visible

Aztec 500/700 (Erika)

Bar-Let no. 2 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Bar-Lock: see Royal Bar-Lock

Barr Special (ca. 1924)
Barr Universal

Bennett (French)
Bennett promotional brochure

Bijou folding (Erika)

Blick Universal (rebranded Klein-Adler)

Blickensderfer no. 5
Blickensderfer no. 5 (early)
Blickensderfer no. 7
Blickensderfer no. 8 (from Machines of Loving Grace)

Blue Bird (Torpedo 18)

Brother Charger 11
Brother Opus 889 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Brother small portable (no tabulator)
Brother small portable (with tabulator, came with a Webster)
Brother small portable (with tabulator, came with a Wizard Automatic)

Buddy L 200 + 500 (English, French, German, Spanish)

Burroughs promotional brochure

Byron Junior (AKA Kamkap, Revere)

Caligraph no. 1 (ca. 1881)
Caligraph no. 3

Canon CanoWord PEN24E (Japanese)
Canon Typestar 6 (Japanese)


Columbia index no. 2

Columbia Bar-Lock: see Royal Bar-Lock

Commercial Visible no. 6

Commodore (Consul 1511)
Commodore 650 (from Machines of Loving Grace)

Consul 221
Consul 232
Consul 1511: see Commodore
Consul Silent

Corona 3
Corona Four (1924)
Corona Four
Corona Four (longer, ca. 1929)
Corona Four (Spanish)
Corona Special folding
Corona Zephyr
Corona Zephyr DeLuxe
Also see Smith-Corona

Crandall New Model

Crown index

Demountable no. 2 (1925)


Empire portable (Hermes Baby clone, AKA Empire Aristocrat) (1959)

Erika 5, aka Ideal
Erika 5 (German)
Erika 9 (German)
Erika 10
Erika 10 (German)
Erika 11 (German)
Erika 12
Erika 30 & 40
Erika 33 & 43
Erika 34 & 44 (German)
Erika 48 (German/English/Spanish, 1985)
Erika 100/105 (German, English, French)
Erika 120 (Russian, Romanian, Czech)
Erika M (German, 1939, with an English translation of parts diagram)

Everest K3

Facit 1620
Facit TP1
Facit TP2


Franklin no. 7

Fox portable no. 1
Fox Sterling

Gossen Tippa and Tippa Pilot

Groma Humber (Kolibri)
Groma Kolibri user's manual
Groma Kolibri promotional brochure
Groma Kolibri Luxus and Kolibri N
Groma N and T (ca. 1953)

GSN Junior toy typewriter (German, English, French, Spanish)

Halda portable

Hammond no. 1
Hammond no. 2

Hermes 9
Hermes 10 electric
Hermes 2000 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Hermes 2000 brochure
Hermes 2000 leaflet
Hermes 3000 (early style)
Hermes 3000 / Media 3 (early style)
Hermes 3000 (Spanish, early style)
Hermes 3000 / Media (1970s)
Hermes Ambassador
Hermes Baby (French, ca. 1954)
Hermes Baby (French, ca. 1960)
Hermes Baby Featherweight (1930s)
Hermes Rocket (1959)

IBM Model B (controls diagram)
IBM Model C
IBM Model C Executive
IBM Selectric I (1967)
IBM Selectric II
IBM Selectric III (1979)
IBM Selectric III (1985)

Ideal 5 portable (Erika)

Imperial A
Imperial D
Imperial Good Companion (1936)
Imperial Good Companion Model T
Imperial Good Companion 3
Imperial Good Companion 4
Imperial Good Companion 5
Imperial Good Companion 6T
Imperial Good Companion 7
Imperial 60 (controls diagram)
Imperial 66

Japy P68 portable (French)
Japy portable: instructions for removing original packaging materials (French)
Japy Script (English) (also good for Amaya, Byron portable, Patria, Oliver Courier, Swissa, and Voss Privat)
Japy Script (French)

Kamkap: see Byron Junior

Lambert no. 1 (French)
Lambert no. 3

Lyubava (Russian, 1990)

L.C. Smith nos. 1, 2, 5, and 6 (1914)
L. C. Smith no. 8 (1926)

Manhattan (also valid for Remington Standard no. 2)

Maritsa 11


Nakajima small portable

Nippo (ca. 1960)
Nippo P-200

Noiseless (3-bank standard)
Noiseless Portable (1922)

Odell no. 4

Oliver Courier (from natslaptaps) -- (also good for Amaya, Byron portable, Japy portable, Patria, Swissa, Voss Privat)
Oliver 5

Olivetti Dora
Olivetti Lettera 22
Olivetti Lettera 22 (another version)
Olivetti Lettera 22 (French)
Olivetti Lettera 32 (1964)
Olivetti Lettera 32 (British Olivetti, 1965)
Olivetti Lettera 35
Olivetti MS 25 Premier Plus (AKA Royal MS 25 Premier Plus)
Olivetti portables (general manual applicable to many 1960s & later typewriters; in Italian, German, French, Spanish, English, and Portuguese)
Olivetti Praxis 48 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Olivetti Studio 44
Olivetti Studio 45
Olivetti Valentine (from natslaptaps)
Olivetti Valentine (French)

Olympia 99 (SF) (Japanese & English)
Olympia-Plana (postwar)
Olympia Progress (Russian)
Olympia SF (ultraportable) ca. 1960
Olympia SG1
Olympia SG3 (English)
Olympia SG3 (English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Serbo-Croatian)
Olympia SG3 Deluxe brochure
Olympia SM3
Olympia SM4
Olympia SM4 (different version)
Olympia SM5
Olympia SM7
Olympia SM9 (1960s)
Olympia SM9 (1970s)
Olympia Splendid 66: version 1, version 2
Olympia Traveller
Olympia Traveller (Japanese & English)

Optima Elite (1958, German)
Optima P1 (German) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Optima Super (Erika 10)

Ortekh (Russian)

H. G. Palmer portable (=Smith-Corona Skyriter)

Patria, Amaya, Meteor (made in Spain) -  (also good for Byron portable, Japy portable, Oliver Courier, Swiss Patria, Swissa, Voss Privat)

Penncrest Caravelle 10 and 12


Pittsburgh (Pittsburg) Visible No. 12


Practical no. 2 (Simplex)

Princess 500 (ca. 1974) (German)

Pullman (also known as American, Armstrong, etc.)

Remington Standard no. 2 & 4
Remington Standard no. 10 & 11 (1910)
Remington 11 portable (ca. 1960)
Remington Fleetwing
Remington Junior (1934)
Remington KMC
Remington KMC (controls diagram)
Remington Mark II (1966)
Remington Noiseless Portable
Remington Noiseless 7 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Remington Noiseless 8 and 9 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Remington Noiseless 10 (office model)
Remington Personal-Riter (1968)
Remington portable #2
Remington portable #3
Remington portables (1936): includes Model 1, Noiseless Portable, Noiseless 7 & 8, Remington 9 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Remington portables (1940): includes Streamline Model 5, Deluxe Junior, Remette, Deluxe Noiseless, Model 7 Noiseless, Remington Rand Model 1, and Remington Premier
Remington Quiet-Riter and Letter-Riter (1950s)
Remington Rand Model 1 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Remington Rand Two-Tone Deluxe Portable (1940s)
Remington Rem-Riter
Remington Ten Forty
Remington Travel-Riter (1950s)
Remington Travel-Riter Deluxe (1960s)
Remington Victor S and T, 1936 (AKA streamlined model 5 portable)
Remington Quiet-Riter and Letter-Riter
Rem-Rand Bantam

Revere: see Byron Junior

Rex Visible

Rheinmetall portable, 1930s (German)
Rheinmetall KsT

Roxy (Rooy)

Royal no. 10 instruction manual and instruction leaflet, 1920s
Royal no. 10 manual/brochure, ca. 1915
Royal Aristocrat (1957)
Royal Arrow (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Royal Caravan
Royal Diana
Royal Electric (1950s)
Royal Electric (1960)
Royal Empress (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Royal Epoch
Royal Futura
Royal HH
Royal KMG (parts diagram)
Royal KMM
Royal MS 25 Premier Plus (AKA Olivetti MS 25 Premier Plus)
Royal O portable (1936)
Royal O portable (Russian)
Royal portable (1926)
Royal portable (1930) (Print double-sided; cut the last two pages lengthwise and staple them to the lower half of the manual.)
Royal portable (made in Japan, 1970s) (English, French, German, Spanish) (from natslaptaps)
Royal Quiet De Luxe (1941)
Royal Quiet De Luxe (1948) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Royal Quiet De Luxe (1952)
Royal portables (1953) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Royal Royalite
Royal Safari (1964)
Royal Scrittore II (2012, English/Spanish)
Royal small portables made in Japan: see Silver-Seiko
Royal Standard (flatbed)
Royal UB portable (1940) (Here is a neat version retyped by Nick Bodemer)
Royal Ultronic

Royal Bar-Lock 10

Salter No. 7

Sears Citation 2 (rebranded Smith-Corona)
Sears Cutlass (rebranded Smith-Corona)
Sears Electric Power 10 & Celebrity Power 12 (rebranded Smith-Corona)
Sears Electronic Communicator
Sears Medalist Power 12 & Electric Power 12 (rebranded Smith-Corona)
Sears President 12 (rebranded Smith-Corona)
Sears Tower President (rebranded Smith-Corona)

Signature 510 and 513 (made by Brother)
Signature 511D (made by Brother, 1972)

Silver-Seiko small portables (includes Silver-Reed, Imperial 200, and several small Royals) (English, French, German, Spanish)

Simplex: see Practical

Smith-Corona Corsair (1967)
Smith-Corona Coronet electric
Smith-Corona Corsair Deluxe (1971)
Smith-Corona Deville Deluxe (1980)
Smith-Corona electric portable (1957)
Smith-Corona Galaxie (1960s)
Smith-Corona Galaxie II (1960s)
Smith-Corona Galaxie II (1960s) (same as above, formatted for booklet printing—print double-sided on short side, then staple)
Smith-Corona floating shift portables (1937, "flattop" models)
Smith-Corona floating shift portables (1938, streamlined models)
Smith-Corona floating shift portables (1949)
Smith-Corona midsized portables (early 1950s)
Smith-Corona midsized portables (1970s)
Smith-Corona Secretarial 315, Secretarial 415, Secretarial 250, and Secretarial 76 (1967)
Smith-Corona Silent-Super, Sterling, and Clipper (1958)
Smith-Corona midsized portables (1976)
Smith-Corona Skyriter (1955)
Smith-Corona Skyriter (1960)
Smith-Corona Sterling (1963)
Smith-Corona Super-G
Smith-Corona 88

Smith Premier no. 1 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Smith Premier no. 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6
Smith Premier no. 10

Sun index ("dogbone" style) (from Machines of Loving Grace)

Tom Thumb

Torpedo 18

Tower Chieftain (Olivetti) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Tower Chieftain II (Smith-Corona) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Tower Chieftain III (Smith-Corona)
Tower Citation 88 (Smith-Corona), 1962
Tower Commander (Smith-Corona), ca. 1950
Tower Quiet-Tabulator (Smith-Corona), 1956
Tower Tabulator (Underwood) ca. 1950
For many Tower (Sears-branded) models, see Smith-Corona or Underwood.

Toyo (sold under names including Alpina Baby, Condor, Jaguar, Rexina)

Triumph Perfekt (in German)

Underwood 3, 4, and 5 (1920s?) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Underwood 3, 4, and 5 (1929)
Underwood 3, 4, and 5 (1930)
Underwood 18 (Antares), English/French/German (from natslaptaps)
Underwood 19 (Antares)
Underwood 21 (English, French, German, Spanish, Italian)
Underwood De Luxe Leader
Underwood De Luxe Leader (retyped by Nick Bodemer)
Underwood Deluxe Quiet Tab and Universal Quiet Tab
Underwood Finger-Flite (Champion and Universal) (1950s)
Underwood Golden-Touch portables (late 1950s)
Underwood Noiseless 77 (identical to Remington Noiseless Portable no. 7)
Underwood portable (3-bank keyboard)
Underwood portable (4-bank keyboard, 1929)
Underwood Rhythm Touch DeLuxe
Underwood standard ca. 1950 (controls diagram)

Varityper (1940)
Varityper VT 3217 (1972)
Varityper typefaces (1967)

Victor index

Victor no. 3

Voss with decimal tabulator

Webster: see Brother

Woodstock no. 5 (1920)

World index (1887)

Yost no. 4 (ca. 1897)

Young American (also known as American Visible)

Service manuals

Adler Special service manual (from Machines of Loving Grace)

Ames Typewriter Mechanical Training Manual, 1945, vol. 1, for Remington, Underwood carriage-shift, Royal, L.C. Smith, and Woodstock standard typewriters, by Clarence LeRoy Jones

Ames supplement on Underwood segment-shift standards

Ames supplement on Woodstock (later R.C. Allen) segment-shift standards

Ames Typewriter Mechanical Training Manual, 1945, vol. 2, for portables: cover and contents, Remington, Royal, Smith-Corona, Underwood

Ames Typewriter Mechanical Training Manual, 1945, vol. 3, for noiseless standards, by Byron L. Wolfe

Ames Basic Training Manual for Standard Typewriters, 1968, for Royal, Underwood, Remington, Smith-Corona, Adler, Hermes, and Olympia

Burroughs no. 50 manual service manual (1932)
Burroughs no. 60 electric service manual (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Burroughs Models 50 & 60 reference manual (from Machines of Loving Grace)

[H. C. Frierson], Textbook on Typewriter Repairing, 1912 (vol. 2, illustrations, showing Underwood, Royal, Oliver, Smith Premier, L. C. Smith, Remington, Fox, and Monarch)

Bryan Kravitz, Hints for a Happy Typewriter, 1983: general advice on typewriter care, with fun illustrations

IBM C-1 service manual

IBM electrics service manual (1953)

Olympia SG1 service manual: text, illustrations

Remington 1953 service manual for portables AN (no tabulator), QR (Quiet-Riter), and ER (Office-Riter)

Royal P repair manual (1926)

Royal Typewriter Maintenance and Repair (US Army & Air Force, 1955)

Underwood service manual by H. G. Pearce (1920)