The Classic Typewriter Page
Frequently Asked

The Typewriter Revolution: Available Now

This page responds to the following frequently-asked questions:
  1. Where can I find a ribbon for my typewriter?
  2. Can you help me with a mechanical problem?
  3. Where is my typewriter's serial number?
  4. Do you have a user's manual for my typewriter?
  5. How old is my typewriter?
  6. What is my typewriter worth?
  7. I want to use a manual typewriter. What would you recommend?
  8. What kind of typewriters have been favored by writers and celebrities?
  9. Are the Bush documents fakes?
  10. Where did you get that cool typewriter font you use on your site?
  11. How can I get rid of That Old Typewriter Smell?
  12. Why doesn't my typewriter have a numeral 1?
  13. Why write on a typewriter when you can write on a computer?
If your question isn't answered here, you may contact me, Richard Polt.

1. Where can I find a ribbon for my typewriter?

Typewriter ribbons are still being made and are not too hard to find. Almost all manual typewriters use half-inch-wide ribbons, and most typewriters can use dual-color ribbons (such as red and black), so look for one of those -- they look nice and can be useful. Good ribbons are available from the sources listed below. Your local office supply store may also have ribbons for manual typewriters (ribbons intended for printing calculators may also work, but they tend to be inked too heavily). Ribbon spools (the reels) are slightly more challenging, if your typewriter is missing them. Ribbons are usually sold on plastic spools, and you may have to experiment with a few kinds before you find one that fits your particular machine. Some typewriters use eyelets on either end of the ribbon, which automatically reverse the ribbon; the same effect can usually be produced by tying a knot near the end of the ribbon. PS: never throw away an old metal spool -- rewind a new ribbon onto it!

Baco Ribbons makes ribbons in many sizes, colors, and materials. Contact Charlene Oesch, Baco Ribbon & Supply Co., 1521 Carman Road, Ballwin, MO 63021, 314-835-9300, fax 636-394-5475, e-mail

Other US manufacturers include Fine Line Ribbon in Ennis, TX, (972) 878-8683, and Ribbons Unlimited in Owings Mills, MD, 1-800-250-7426.

Tony Casillo of TTS Business Products in Garden City, NY, carries many varieties of ribbon and can advise you on the correct spool, ribbon material, etc. Call 516-489-8300 or e-mail

Earl De Barth, of, telephone number 215-855-6851, 9:00 am to 4:00 pm ET, e-mail, has the material for the 25 mm and wider ribbons. He has no spools, so requests that the purchaser send him a spool on which to wind the "new" ribbon. He can sometimes provide ribbons in colors other than black or black/red. Prices vary according to length, number of ribbons purchased, etc.

Other sources include Royal, Scantracker, and FJA Products.

In the UK, try Kleen Strike or Globe Typewriters (on eBay).

2. Can you help me with a mechanical problem?

Often, a problem with a manual typewriter can be fixed at home with a little time, a little ingenuity, and some simple tools such as a screwdriver. For a few tips on mechanical repairs and restoration, see Basic Typewriter Restoration. For Will Davis's more extensive advice, see his Online Typewriter Support. But sometimes an expert's personal help is certainly needed. I cannot give you any expert advice, but I have a list of repair shops around the world that will work on manual typewriters.

Chapter 4 of my book provides tips on fixing many common problems.

3. Where is my typewriter's serial number?
It may take time to find it, and you may need a flashlight. You may need to move the carriage all the way to the left or right and look at the area revealed (especially on Royals); lift up the ribbon cover and peer at the inner frame of the machine (especially on Smith-Corona portables and '50s Remington portables); look in a corner of the slotted panel behind the keyboard (earlier Remington portables); or look at the bottom of the typewriter. Also check the areas on the frame to the left or right of the semicircular slotted segment. Once you have found the serial number, you can try looking up its date at The Typewriter Database, a site maintained by Ted Munk that lists serial numbers for many makes.

4. Do you have a user's manual for my typewriter?

Check my manuals page.

5. How old is my typewriter?

If you can find your typewriter's serial number, it may be listed at The Typewriter Database, maintained by Ted Munk (select your manufacturer from the drop-down menu). Failing that, here are some rules of thumb:

Weird? If your typewriter looks bizarre in some way (strange keyboard, shape, etc.), chances are that it's pre-1920. Let me know what you've got, and I'll try to give you more information.

Have an Underwood? If it says "Wagner Typewriter Co." on the back, it dates from 1895-1900. If it doesn't say "Wagner" but has an open frame (you can easily see the works), it dates from 1900-1930. If it's an open-framed Underwood #5, check my Underwood page for a list of serial numbers that will let you date it with precision. (Look for the serial number on the right top of the frame, under the right end of the carriage.) If it is an office-sized typewriter with an enclosed frame (covered in sheet metal), it's after 1930. Underwood portables with three rows of keys date from 1919-29. Those with four rows of keys are mostly from the thirties and forties.

Have a Remington portable? Check my Remington portables page for a list of pre-war Remington portables, with the dates of each model. If it's not on my list, it dates from after World War II.

Patent dates can tell you that a typewriter was made after a certain date, but sometimes the machine was made quite a few years after the latest patent date. In the case of older (open-frame) Underwoods, the company got so many patents that the last patent date is probably very close to the year of manufacture. (Look on the back of the machine for a big decal listing all the patents.)

If your typewriter has very little plastic, it's probably no later than the mid-1930s.

If it's painted in crinkle paint (with tiny wrinkles), it's usually from the late thirties or the forties.

Postwar typewriters (that's World War II we're talking about) can be recognized by various signs: U.S. patent numbers above 2,400,000; extensive use of plastic; and keys that are not circular, but are rounded-off rectangles.

IBM Selectrics date from 1960 at the earliest. This also goes for other modern electric machines that use a single type element (such as the Selectric "golf ball").

Electronic typewriters with a daisy wheel date from the 1970s at the earliest.

6. What is my typewriter worth?

The monetary value of a typewriter can't be determined precisely, because there are relatively few collectors and the market is always changing. Furthermore, the condition of a typewriter affects its value significantly. To further complicate things, there are literally hundreds of makes of typewriter that are of value to a collector, ranging from $50 machines to $50,000 machines. I won't list them all here -- write to me with the details of your typewriter (make, model, condition). However, you should first check to see whether your typewriter falls into one of the classes below, as 95% of them do. I also recommend searching completed auctions at eBay, where you will find many examples of the common makes of typewriter.

Postwar typewriters

Few large typewriters made after World War II are considered "collectible," because they are mostly look-alikes produced in great quantities -- and they are often ugly, in many people's view. Don't expect the price to go over $50 or so. The exceptions to this rule are typewriters that have a strange or specialized mechanism -- for instance, the Varityper, a "cold typesetting" machine descended from the Hammond which prints from a type shuttle.

Postwar portables have become popular since around 2000 as collectibles and working typewriters. Value largely depends on appearance; bright colors bring a premium. The more eye-catching and colorful '50s portables can bring $200 or more, depending on condition and luck. Common makes in dull colors will probably be worth under $50.

As for prewar typewriters, most belong to the following makes:


This is one of the first portables. The Corona that most collectors like is the model 3, with three banks of keys and a carriage that folds down onto the keyboard. This is a beginner's machine that is frequently found. An informed collector will hold out for one in excellent condition, and will not pay much more than $50 for it. Colored specimens are worth more than black ones.


These machines are collectible and are certainly unusual to the modern eye, with their U-shaped typebars hovering over the platen. However, most are not rare. Expect the value to be in the $50-$200 range, give or take some according to condition. Olivers do have many minor variations, some of which are unusual. The most valuable Oliver is the #1, which can be recognized by its nickel finish and the fact that the tabs sticking out of its sides are flat to the ground.


Remington was always a leader in the typewriter industry -- so many Remington machines are common and worth little. Understroke Remingtons (which type on the underside of the platen) are worth some money; these are full-sized, office typewriters with model numbers under 10. The most common understroke Remingtons are the #6 and #7, worth around $100; other understroke models can be worth more. There are also many models of Remington portables; most of these are frequently found, but are enjoyed by some collectors. They will bring a modest price, say $30, give or take according to condition and luck. As usual, bright colors bring a premium. The rare Remington Electric of 1925 is worth several hundred dollars; this is a boxy machine that has a carriage return lever on the right.


Royals #1, #5, and Standard are office machines with an unusual, low profile and a keyboard that looks like it's emerging from a staircase (collectors call these the "flatbed" models). They are worth around $50-$200 depending on condition (usually they are in poor shape). Many older Royal office typewriters are model 10 (usually not marked as such); the earlier ones have glass windows on the sides. Value depends on condition -- anywhere from zero to $200. Royal portables are fun, but not worth much (about $10-$200 depending on condition, color, and luck, with an average value around $40). The big exception is the gold-plated version of the '50s Royal Quiet Deluxe portable, which is worth $400+. Finally, if your machine says "Royal Grand," you have found a very rare item that's the most valuable model of this make.

L.C. Smith

These are common, conventional typewriters. The earlier L.C. Smiths have a handsome decal with prancing horses. If you have such a machine in excellent condition, the lower the model number the better, it can bring $100+ on a good day. L.C. Smith merged with Corona to create Smith-Corona in 1926. Smith-Corona portables from the 30s, in excellent condition, can be nice and might be worth $50 or so. Later Smith-Coronas are so common that they are of minor interest to collectors (although they are fine writing machines).


A very successful German make, with a reputation for high quality. It is unlikely that an Olympia will bring more than $50, but a particularly beautiful specimen may go higher.


The earliest Underwoods are considered collectible and will bring roughly $200; these usually say "Wagner Typewriter Co." on the back. Some collectors or people who want one old typewriter will enjoy an ordinary Underwood (which is likely to be a #5) if it's in great condition. Very nice #5's can bring $200 or so, but the average-condition Underwood (any model) is worth little. There are some attractive Underwood portables, particularly the "Underwood Standard Portable Typewriter" of 1919-29, with three rows of keys (the name is bigger than the typewriter). It's worth about $50. For more about Underwoods, click here.


These well-made but conventional typewriters are generally ignored by collectors. The Woodstock Electrite is an early electric typewriter that is not frequently found, but still may bring under $100. A particularly nice Woodstock with great decals can sometimes get up to $200.

7. I want to use a manual typewriter. What would you recommend?
Chapter 3 of my book provides detailed advice on selecting a writing machine. Here are some quick tips.

It's partly a matter of taste, but some makes have gathered a lot of fans for their sturdiness, their looks, or their feel. Many users prefer a machine that uses "segment shift" (also known as "basket shift") rather than "carriage shift": in other words, when you shift, the carriage does not move up and down but the typebars do. This is easier, particularly for those used to computer keyboards. Size is another consideration: a standard office machine is very heavy, but offers the greatest mechanical sophistication. If you choose an ultra-flat, "laptop" typewriter, the portability will usually come at the cost of a less satisfying feel. For many users, a mid-sized portable made between 1930 and 1970 will do the trick. A few manual portables are still made in China today, but their quality is not great.

Here are some possibilities. My list below is linked to current eBay auctions. Be patient and hold out for a machine in good condition, offered by a seller with a good reputation. For a professionally cleaned and reconditioned typewriter from sources other than eBay, I also recommend (mostly pre-1940 machines), Mr. Typewriter (mostly postwar machines), and Blue Moon Camera.

8. What kind of typewriters have been favored by writers and celebrities?
Please see my page on writers and their typewriters.

9. Are the Bush documents fakes?
In a word: yes. The details are here.

10. Where did you get that cool typewriter font you use on your site?

From a typewriter. Specifically, my beloved Remington Noiseless Portable Model Seven. I typed the text, then scanned it. This method will always be more convincing than using a simulated typewriter font for computers. However, I have created a number of typewriter fonts that you are welcome to download here. Many more free typewriter fonts are available at

11. How can I get rid of That Old Typewriter Smell?

Hey, some of us like it! But we're perverse ...

See Basic Typewriter Restoration (the end of the first section) for tips on this problem.

12. Why doesn't my typewriter have a numeral 1?

Most manual typewriters did without the numeral 1; you were expected to type a lowercase L instead. Often for a zero you would type an uppercase letter O; for an exclamation mark, you would type period-backspace-apostrophe, or hold down the shift key and spacebar while typing the period and apostrophe (usually you can superimpose characters if you hold down the spacebar). Cyrillic typewriters (for Russian, Ukrainian, etc.) do have a numeral 1, but don't have a numeral 3, because the Cyrillic equivalent to Z looks like a 3! All are ways to save a few parts and make manufacture cheaper.

13. Why write on a typewriter when you can write on a computer?

Why take a country road when you can take the Interstate?
Why ride a bike when you can drive a car?
Why shop at the corner store when you can shop at Wal-Mart?
Why cook from scratch when you can eat fast food?
Why draw a picture of something when you can point your smartphone at it?

Efficiency isn't always the most important consideration. Typewriters are durable, personal, private, single-purpose, independent, and secure. Of course, they are also efficient tools for typing envelopes, labels, forms, checks, and other odd jobs.

For more thoughts on this topic from writers who type, see Typewriter Tributes.

And for a full-blown typist's manifesto, check out my book, The Typewriter Revolution.