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The Typewriter Revolution:
A Typist's Companion for the 21st Century

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Here are some typewriter user's manuals and service manuals.

Thanks to all who have contributed! If you have a manual you'd like to add to this page, contact me. —Richard Polt

These documents are in English unless otherwise indicated.

For other manuals, visit:
Trade Literature on the Typewriter Gazette site (includes manuals, promotional brochures, etc.),
Georg Sommeregger's site (manuals are mostly in German), (manuals are mostly in Russian),
  Machines of Loving Grace (partially mirrored here),
or ask on one of the online typewriter groups.

On you can find manuals for a variety of electronic typewriters made by Brother, Smith-Corona, Lexmark, and others.

You can also download useful literature if you become a Typewriter Hunter on The Typewriter Database.
The Database's collection of repair manuals is open to all.

Ted Munk offers an excellent collection of print-on-demand service manuals on Bookpatch, and even more in PDF form on Sellfy.

User's manuals

General and multi-make

First Aid for Typewriters: advice from Popular Science, May 1941

R. T. Nicholson, Mechanical Devices of the Typewriter, 1920: Bar-Lock 14, Empire 1 and 2, Monarch 3, Oliver 9, Remington 10 and 11, Royal 10, L.C. Smith 8, Smith Premier 10, Underwood 5, Yost 15 and 20 fronststrokes. This book goes into greater detail than most user's manuals, and offers insights into various aspects of these makes that were popular in the United Kingdom at the time.

Typewriter Care: a Federal Work Improvement Program pamphlet from 1945. Good advice on caring for office typewriters of the day.

Typewriter Headquarters Catalogue, 1897: a dealer's brochure with basic information about many models of the day: Remington 1-5, Caligraph 1-2, Yost, Smith Premier, National, Williams, International, Hammond, Densmore, Franklin, Fitch, Bar-Lock, Automatic, Crandall, Hall, Odell, Dennis-Duplex, Merritt, Crown, Daugherty, World, Munson, and Victor. Courtesy of Michael Davenport.

By make

Adler Automatic (English, French, German, Spanish)
Adler Favorit (German)
Adler Gabriele 10, 20, 30 (German, Italian, Portuguese, Danish)
Adler Gabriele 10, 25, 35 (English, French, Dutch, Spanish)
Adler J2 and J4
Adler J3
Adler J2 and J5
Adler Junior 12
Adler Primus and Favorit
Adler Special (German)
Adler Tippa
Adler Tippa S (English, French, Dutch, Spanish)
Adler Universal
Adler Universal (German)

Alpina (another version)

American index no. 2 (ca 1895-96)

American Visible


Aztec 500/700 (Erika)

Bar-Let no. 2 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Bar-Lock: see Royal Bar-Lock

Barr Special (ca. 1924)
Barr Universal

Bennett (French)
Bennett promotional brochure

Bijou folding (Erika)

Blick Universal (rebranded Klein-Adler)

Blickensderfer no. 5 (early, 1 page)
Blickensderfer no. 5 (early, 1 page, another version)
Blickensderfer no. 5 (later, 26 pages)
Blickensderfer no. 7
Blickensderfer no. 8 (from Machines of Loving Grace)

Blue Bird (Torpedo 18)

Brother Charger 11
Brother Deluxe 897
Brother electronic typewriter
Brother EP-20
Brother Opus 889 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Brother small portable (no tabulator)
Brother small portable (with tabulator, came with a Webster)
Brother small portable (with tabulator, came with a Wizard Automatic)

Buddy L 200 + 500 (English, French, German, Spanish)

Burroughs promotional brochure

Byron Junior (AKA Kamkap, Revere)

Caligraph no. 1 (ca. 1881)
Caligraph no. 3

Canon CanoWord PEN24 (Japanese)
Canon CanoWord PEN24E (Japanese)
Canon Typestar 6
Canon Typestar 6 (Japanese)


Columbia index no. 2

Columbia Bar-Lock: see Royal Bar-Lock

Commercial Visible no. 6

Commodore (Consul 1511)
Commodore 650 (from Machines of Loving Grace)

Consul 221
Consul 232
Consul 1511: see Commodore
Consul 1518
Consul Silent

Corona 3
Corona Four (1924)
Corona Four
Corona Four (longer, ca. 1929)
Corona Four (Spanish)
Corona Special folding
Corona Zephyr
Corona Zephyr DeLuxe
Also see Smith-Corona

Crandall New Model

Crown index

Demountable no. 2 (1925)

Dial (Marx toy, ca. 1930)

Easy-writer 300 toy typewriter (AKA Buddy-L) (English, Spanish, French, German)


Empire portable (Hermes Baby clone, AKA Empire Aristocrat) (1959)

Erika 5, aka Ideal
Erika 5 (German)
Erika 9 (German)
Erika 10
Erika 10 (German)
Erika 11 (German)
Erika 12
Erika 30 & 40
Erika 33 & 43
Erika 34 & 44 (German)
Erika 41 (German, English, French)
Erika 48 (German, English, Spanish, 1985)
Erika 50/60 (German, Hungarian, Polish)
Erika 100/105 (German, English, French)
Erika 120 (Russian, Romanian, Czech)
Erika M (German, ca. 1937)
Erika M (German, 1939, with an English translation of parts diagram)

Everest K3

Facit 1620
Facit TP1
Facit TP2


Franklin no. 7

Fox portable no. 1
Fox Sterling

Gossen Tippa and Tippa Pilot
Gossen Tippa (German, ca. 1951)

Groma Humber (Kolibri)
Groma Kolibri
Groma Kolibri (French)
Groma Kolibri (Polish)
Groma Kolibri promotional brochure
Groma Kolibri Luxus and Kolibri N
Groma Kolibri Luxus and Kolibri N (German)
Groma N and T (ca. 1953)

GSN Junior toy typewriter (German, English, French, Spanish)

Halda portable


Hammond 1
Hammond 2
Hammond Folding Multiplex

Hermes 8
Hermes 9
Hermes 10 electric
Hermes 2000 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Hermes 2000 brochure
Hermes 2000 leaflet
Hermes 3000 (early style)
Hermes 3000 / Media 3 (early style)
Hermes 3000 (Spanish, early style)
Hermes 3000 / Media (1970s)
Hermes Ambassador
Hermes Ambassador (German, ca. 1970)
Hermes Baby (ca. 1950)
Hermes Baby (French, ca. 1954)
Hermes Baby (French, ca. 1960)
Hermes Baby Featherweight (1930s)
Hermes Rocket (1959)

IBM Model B (controls diagram)
IBM Model C
IBM Model C Executive (a couple of pages are missing)
IBM Selectric I (ca. 1961)
IBM Selectric I (1967)
IBM Selectric II
IBM Selectric III (1979)
IBM Selectric III (1985)
IBM Wheelwriter 1000 by Lexmark (1994)

Ideal 5 portable (Erika)

Imperial A
Imperial D
Imperial Good Companion (1936)
Imperial Good Companion Model T
Imperial Good Companion 3
Imperial Good Companion 4
Imperial Good Companion 5
Imperial Good Companion 6T
Imperial Good Companion 7
Imperial 55 (from
Imperial 60 (controls diagram)
Imperial 66

Japy P68 portable (French)
Japy portable: instructions for removing original packaging materials (French)
Japy Script (English) (also good for Amaya, Byron portable, Patria, Oliver Courier, Swissa, and Voss Privat)
Japy Script (French)

Kamkap: see Byron Junior

Lambert no. 1 (French)
Lambert no. 3

Lyubava (Russian, 1990)

L.C. Smith nos. 1, 2, 5, and 6 (1914)
L. C. Smith no. 8 (1926)
L. C. Smith no. 8 promotional brochure and parts diagram (1928)

Manhattan (also valid for Remington Standard no. 2)

Maritsa 11

Marx Dial (ca. 1930)
Marxwriter (1965)


Nakajima small portable

National no. 5 portable

Nippo (ca. 1960)
Nippo P-200

Noiseless (3-bank standard)
Noiseless Portable (1922)

Odell no. 4

Oliver Courier (from natslaptaps) -- (also good for Amaya, Byron portable, Japy portable, Patria, Swissa, Voss Privat)
Oliver 5 user manual; fingering method; "Your Final Typewriter" promotional brochure
Oliver 9 and 11

Olivetti Dora
Olivetti Editor 2: user's manual, brief instruction booklet, summary of characteristics, promotional brochure
Olivetti Editor 4 and 4 C summary of characteristics (1969)
Olivetti Editor 5 summary of characteristics (1969)
Olivetti Lettera 22
Olivetti Lettera 22 (British Olivetti, 1950)
Olivetti Lettera 22 (another version)
Olivetti Lettera 22 (French)
Olivetti Lettera 25 (Italian, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, English)
Olivetti Lettera 32 (1964)
Olivetti Lettera 32 (British Olivetti, 1965)
Olivetti Lettera 33 (1967)
Olivetti Lettera 35
Olivetti Lexikon 82
Olivetti Lexikon 90 (Italian, French, English)
Olivetti MP1 portable (ICO) (translated into English from German by James Dow)
Olivetti MS 25 Premier Plus (AKA Royal MS 25 Premier Plus)
Olivetti portables (general manual applicable to many 1960s & later typewriters; in Italian, German, French, Spanish, English, and Portuguese)
Olivetti Praxis 48 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Olivetti Studio 44
Olivetti Studio 45
Olivetti Valentine (from natslaptaps)
Olivetti Valentine (French)

Olympia 99 (SF) (Japanese & English)
Olympia B12
Olympia-Plana (postwar)
Olympia Progress (Russian)
Olympia SF (rounded body)
Olympia SF (angular body) ca. 1960
Olympia SG1
Olympia SG3 (English)
Olympia SG3 (English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Serbo-Croatian)
Olympia SG3 Deluxe brochure
Olympia SM2
Olympia SM3
Olympia SM4
Olympia SM4 (different version)
Olympia SM5
Olympia SM7
Olympia SM9 (1960s)
Olympia SM9 (1970s)
Olympia Splendid 33
Olympia Splendid 66: version 1, version 2
Olympia Traveller
Olympia Traveller (Japanese & English)
Olympia Electric X-L12 or M-R12 (and promotional brochure)

Optima Elite (1959, English)
Optima Elite (1958, German)
Optima P1 (German) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Optima Super (Erika 10)

Ortekh (Russian)

H. G. Palmer portable (=Smith-Corona Skyriter)

Patria, Amaya, Meteor (made in Spain) -  (also good for Byron portable, Japy portable, Oliver Courier, Swiss Patria, Swissa, Voss Privat)

Penncrest Caravelle 10 and 12


Pittsburgh (Pittsburg) Visible No. 12


Practical no. 2 (Simplex)

Princess 300
Princess 500 (ca. 1974) (German)

Pullman (also known as American, Armstrong, etc.)

Remington Standard no. 2 & 4
Remington Standard no. 6 & 7
Remington Standard no. 10 & 11 (1910)
Remington 11 portable (ca. 1960)
Remington 17 (ca. 1939)
Remington 333
Remington Fleetwing
Remington Junior (1934)
Remington KMC
Remington KMC (controls diagram)
Remington Mark II (1966)
Remington Noiseless Portable
Remington Noiseless 7 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Remington Noiseless 8 and 9 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Remington Noiseless 10 (office model)
Remington Personal-Riter (1968)
Remington portable #2
Remington portable #3
Remington portables (1936): includes Model 1, Noiseless Portable, Noiseless 7 & 8, Remington 9 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Remington portables (1940): includes Streamline Model 5, Deluxe Junior, Remette, Deluxe Noiseless, Model 7 Noiseless, Remington Rand Model 1, and Remington Premier
Remington Quiet-Riter and Letter-Riter (1950s)
Remington Rand Model 1 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Remington Rand Two-Tone Deluxe Portable (1940s)
Remington Rem-Riter
Remington Ten Forty
Remington Travel-Riter (1950s)
Remington Travel-Riter Deluxe (1960s)
Remington Victor S and T, 1936 (AKA streamlined model 5 portable)
Rem-Rand Bantam

Revere: see Byron Junior

Rex Visible

Rheinmetall portable, 1930s (German)
Rheinmetall KsT

Roxy (Rooy)

Royal pamphlet: "Typing Better Letters" (1948)
Royal 10 instruction manual and instruction leaflet, 1920s
Royal 10 manual/brochure, ca. 1915
Royal 240 portable (aka Marksman, Astronaut) (English, French, German, Spanish)
Royal Aristocrat (1957)
Royal Arrow (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Royal Caravan
Royal Diana
Royal Electric (1950s)
Royal Empress (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Royal Epoch
Royal FP (1957)
Royal Futura
Royal Grand
Royal HE electric (1960)
Royal HE electric (1960) (a different version)
Royal HH
Royal KH and KHM (1937)
Royal KMG (parts diagram)
Royal KMM
Royal MS 25 Premier Plus (AKA Olivetti MS 25 Premier Plus)
Royal O portable (1936)
Royal O portable (Russian)
Royal portable (1926)
Royal portable (1930) (Print double-sided; cut the last two pages lengthwise and staple them to the lower half of the manual.)
Royal Quiet De Luxe (1941)
Royal Quiet De Luxe (1948) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Royal Quiet De Luxe (1952)
Royal portables (1953) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Royal Royalite
Royal Sabre and Custom III portables (1968)
Royal Safari (1964)
Royal Scrittore II (2012, English/Spanish)
Royal small portables made in Japan: see Silver-Seiko
Royal Signet (early 1960s)
Royal Standard (flatbed)
Royal UB portable (1940) (Here is a neat version retyped by Nick Bodemer)
Royal Ultronic

Royal Bar-Lock 10

Salter No. 7

Sears Attache (by Smith-Corona)
Sears Citation 2 (by Smith-Corona)
Sears Cutlass (by Smith-Corona)
Sears Electric Power 10 & Celebrity Power 12 (by Smith-Corona)
Sears Electronic Communicator
Sears Medalist Power 12 & Electric Power 12 (by Smith-Corona)
Sears Newport
Sears President 12 (by Smith-Corona)
Sears Tower President (by Smith-Corona)

Signature 440T (by Brother, 1966)
Signature 510 and 513 (by Brother)
Signature 511D (Brother, 1972)

Silver Reed 8650 electric (aka Silver-Seiko 6200)
Silver Reed EX-32 (from Writelephant)

Silver-Seiko small portables (includes Silver-Reed, Imperial 200, and several small Royals) (English, French, German, Spanish)

Simplex: see Practical

Smith-Corona Corsair (1967)
Smith-Corona Coronet electric (1960s)
Smith-Corona Coronet XL electric (1980)
Smith-Corona Corsair Deluxe (1971)
Smith-Corona Deville Deluxe (1980)
Smith-Corona electric portable (1957)
Smith-Corona Galaxie (1960s)
Smith-Corona Galaxie II (1960s)
Smith-Corona Galaxie II (1960s) (same as above, formatted for booklet printing—print double-sided on short side, then staple)
Smith-Corona floating shift portables (1937, "flattop" models)
Smith-Corona floating shift portables (1938, streamlined models)
Smith-Corona floating shift portables (1938, German)
Smith-Corona floating shift portables (1949)
Smith-Corona midsized portables (1951)
Smith-Corona midsized portables (1970s)
Smith-Corona midsized portables (1976)
Smith-Corona Secretarial 315, Secretarial 415, Secretarial 250, and Secretarial 76 (1967)
Smith-Corona Silent-Super, Sterling, and Clipper (1958)
Smith-Corona Skyriter (1955)
Smith-Corona Skyriter (1960)
Smith-Corona standards (ca. 1950)
Smith-Corona Sterling (1963)
Smith-Corona Super-G
Smith-Corona 88
Smith-Corona 10-Day Touch-Typing Course (hi-res version of the file and audio for the course can be found here; audio is also on YouTube) (courtesy of John Munroe)

Smith Premier no. 1 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Smith Premier no. 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6
Smith Premier no. 10

Sun index ("dogbone" style) (from Machines of Loving Grace)

Tom Thumb

Torpedo 18

Tower Chieftain (Olivetti) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Tower Chieftain II (Smith-Corona) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Tower Chieftain III (Smith-Corona)
Tower Citation 88 (Smith-Corona), 1962
Tower Commander (Smith-Corona), ca. 1950
Tower Quiet-Tabulator (Smith-Corona), 1956
Tower Tabulator (Underwood) ca. 1950
For many Tower (Sears-branded) models, see Smith-Corona or Underwood.

Toyo (sold under names including Alpina Baby, Condor, Jaguar, Rexina)

Triumph Norm and Perfekt
Triumph Perfekt (German)

Underwood 3, 4, and 5 (from Acme Instructor for the Underwood Typewriter, 1898)
Underwood 3, 4, and 5 (1920s?) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Underwood 3, 4, and 5 (1929)
Underwood 3, 4, and 5 (1930)
Underwood 18 (Antares), English/French/German (from natslaptaps)
Underwood 19 (Antares)
Underwood 21 (English, French, German, Spanish, Italian)
Underwood 315
Underwood All Electric
Underwood Champion portable (1938)
Underwood Champion portable (1946)
Underwood Champion and Universal portables (1948)
Underwood De Luxe Leader
Underwood De Luxe Leader (retyped by Nick Bodemer)
Underwood Deluxe Quiet Tab and Universal Quiet Tab
Underwood Finger-Flite (Champion and Universal) (1950s)
Underwood Golden-Touch portables (late 1950s)
Underwood Leader
Underwood Noiseless 77 (identical to Remington Noiseless Portable no. 7)
Underwood portable (3-bank keyboard)
Underwood portable (3-bank keyboard), earlier version, controls diagram 
Underwood portable (4-bank keyboard, 1929)
Underwood portable (1931)
Underwood Rhythm Touch DeLuxe
Underwood standard ca. 1950 (controls diagram)

Varityper (1940)
Varityper VT 3217 (1972)
Varityper typefaces (1967)

Victor index

Victor no. 3

Voss with decimal tabulator

Webster: see Brother

Woodstock no. 5 (1920)

World index (1887)

Yost no. 4 (ca. 1897)

Young American (also known as American Visible)

Service manuals

Adler Special service manual (from Machines of Loving Grace)

Ames Typewriter Mechanical Training Manual, 1945, vol. 1, for Remington, Underwood carriage-shift, Royal, L.C. Smith, and Woodstock standard typewriters, by Clarence LeRoy Jones
Ames supplement on Underwood segment-shift standards
Ames supplement on Woodstock (later R.C. Allen) segment-shift standards
Ames Typewriter Mechanical Training Manual, 1945, vol. 2, for portables: cover and contents, Remington, Royal, Smith-Corona, Underwood
Ames Typewriter Mechanical Training Manual, 1945, vol. 3, for noiseless standards, by Byron L. Wolfe
Ames Basic Manual for Electric Typewriters, 1970, for Royal, Remington, Smith-Corona, Underwood, IBM Selectric, and IBM C and D
Ames Basic Training Manual for Standard Typewriters, 1968, for Royal, Underwood, Remington, Smith-Corona, Adler, Hermes, and Olympia

Barr service manual (1928)

Burroughs no. 50 manual service manual (1932)
Burroughs no. 60 electric service manual (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Burroughs Models 50 & 60 reference manual (from Machines of Loving Grace)

[H. C. Frierson], Textbook on Typewriter Repairing, 1912 (vol. 2, illustrations, showing Underwood, Royal, Oliver, Smith Premier, L. C. Smith, Remington, Fox, and Monarch)

IBM Models 01-10 Manual of Instruction (1939 with later additions)
IBM C-1 service manual
IBM C4 and C5 (Executive) service manual
IBM electrics service manual (1953)
IBM parts manual (1960)
IBM Selectric 71 & 72 parts catalog

Bryan Kravitz, Hints for a Happy Typewriter, 1983: general advice on typewriter care, with fun illustrations

Olympia SG1 service manual: text, illustrations

Remington Standard no. 2 service instructions, from Typewriter Secrets
Remington no. 17 service manual (1942) (from the collection of the late Bob Montgomery of Bremerton Office Machine Co.)
Remington Electric service manual (1960)
Remington Electri-Conomy service manual (1951)
Remington electric service manual (1960)
Remington KMC parts catalog (1947)
Remington KMC service manual (1949)
Remington Monarch portable service manual (1960)
Remington new style electric typewriter service manual (1956)
Remington Noiseless no. 10 parts catalog (1947)
Remington Noiseelss no. 10 service manual (1936)
Remington Noiseless no. 10 service manual (1943) (from the collection of the late Bob Montgomery of Bremerton Office Machine Co.)
Remington Noiseless no. 10 service manual (1952)
Remington noiseless portables service manual (1944) (from the collection of the late Bob Montgomery of Bremerton Office Machine Co.)
Remington portable (non-noiseless) service manual (1931)
Remington standard service manual (1954)
Remington Super-Riter service manual (1951)
Remington Travel-Riter service manual (1960)
Remington 1953 parts catalog for portables AN (no tabulator), QR (Quiet-Riter), and ER (Office-Riter)
Remington 1953 service manual for portables AN (no tabulator), QR (Quiet-Riter), and ER (Office-Riter)

Royal P repair manual (1926) (also here)
Royal standards service manual, from Royal Typewriter Co. (1940s)
Royal Typewriter Maintenance and Repair (US Army & Air Force, 1955)

Underwood service manual by H. G. Pearce (1920)
Underwood maintenance and repair (US Army, 1955)

Woodstock Adjustment Manual and Parts List, N580,000 and up (1942) (from the collection of the late Bob Montgomery of Bremerton Office Machine Co.)