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          Typewriter Page

The Typewriter Revolution:
A Typist's Companion for the 21st Century

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Here are some typewriter user's manuals, service manuals, and typing instruction manuals.

Thanks to all who have contributed! If you have a manual you'd like to add to this page, please contact me. —Richard Polt

These documents are in English unless otherwise indicated.

For other manuals, visit:
Trade Literature on the Typewriter Gazette site (includes manuals, promotional brochures, etc.),
Georg Sommeregger's site (manuals are mostly in German), (manuals are mostly in Russian),
  Machines of Loving Grace (partially mirrored here),
or ask on one of the online typewriter groups.

On you can find manuals for a variety of electronic typewriters made by Brother, Smith-Corona, Lexmark, and others.

You can also download useful literature if you become a Typewriter Hunter on The Typewriter Database. The Database's collection of repair manuals is open to all.

Ted Munk offers an excellent collection of print-on-demand service manuals on Bookpatch, and even more in PDF form on Sellfy.

User's manuals

General and multi-make

First Aid for Typewriters: advice from Popular Science, May 1941

R. T. Nicholson, Mechanical Devices of the Typewriter, 1920: Bar-Lock 14, Empire 1 and 2, Monarch 3, Oliver 9, Remington 10 and 11, Royal 10, L.C. Smith 8, Smith Premier 10, Underwood 5, Yost 15 and 20 fronststrokes. This book goes into greater detail than most user's manuals, and offers insights into various aspects of these makes that were popular in Britain at the time.

Typewriter Care: a Federal Work Improvement Program pamphlet from 1945. Good advice on caring for office typewriters of the day.

Typewriter Headquarters Catalogue, 1897: a dealer's brochure with basic information about many models of the day: Remington 1-5, Caligraph 1-2, Yost, Smith Premier, National, Williams, International, Hammond, Densmore, Franklin, Fitch, Bar-Lock, Automatic, Crandall, Hall, Odell, Dennis-Duplex, Merritt, Crown, Daugherty, World, Munson, and Victor. Courtesy of Michael Davenport.

By make

Addo 822, 732, 841, and 621 (Swedish, English) (Facit name variant)

Adler Automatic (English, French, German, Spanish)
Adler Contessa De Luxe (English, French, Dutch, Spanish)
Adler Contessa 2 De Luxe (English, French, German, Spanish)
Adler Favorit (German)
Adler Gabriele 10, 20, 30 (German, Italian, Portuguese, Danish)
Adler Gabriele 10, 25, 35 (English, French, Dutch, Spanish)
Adler Gabriele 10, 25, 35 (German, Italian, Spanish, Danish)
Adler J2 and J4
Adler J3
Adler J2 and J5
Adler J2 and J5 (later)
Adler Junior 12
Adler Primus and Favorit
Adler Primus and Favorit (German)
Adler Privat (Danish)
Adler Special (German)
Adler Tippa
Adler Tippa S (English, French, Dutch, Spanish)
Adler Universal
Adler Universal (German)

Alpina (another version)

American index no. 2 (ca 1895-96)

American Visible

Antares (English, French, German, Spanish, Italian)


Aztec 500/700 (Erika)
Aztec 600 (Rheinmetall KsT)

Bar-Let no. 2 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Bar-Lock: see Royal Bar-Lock

Barr Special (ca. 1924)
Barr Universal

Bennett (French)
Bennett promotional brochure

Bijou folding (Erika)

Blick Universal (rebranded Klein-Adler)

Blickensderfer no. 5 (early, 1 page)
Blickensderfer no. 5 (early, 1 page, another version)
Blickensderfer no. 5 (later, 26 pages)
Blickensderfer no. 7
Blickensderfer no. 8 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Blickensderfer (Blick) Featherweight

Blue Bird (Torpedo 18)

Brother AX-45 (German)
Brother Charger 11
Brother Deluxe 897
Brother Deluxe 1510 and similar
Brother Echelon 66
Brother electronic typewriter
Brother EP-20
Brother EP-22
Brother JP-7 (Kmart 300 Deluxe 12)
Brother JP-8 (electric portable with manual carriage return) (English, French, German, Spanish)
Brother Opus 889 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Brother small portable (no tabulator)
Brother small portable (no tabulator, Webster brand, 1966)
Brother small portable (with tabulator, came with a Webster)
Brother small portable (with tabulator, came with a Wizard Automatic)
Brother Super 7300 electric single-element typewriter (1980) (English, German, French, Spanish)
See also Webster, Wizard

Buddy L 200 + 500 (English, French, German, Spanish)

Burroughs promotional brochure

Byron Junior (AKA Kamkap, Revere)

Caligraph no. 1 (ca. 1881)
Caligraph no. 3

Canon CanoWord PEN24 (Japanese)
Canon CanoWord PEN24E (Japanese)
Canon ES25
Canon Typestar 3
Canon Typestar 5
Canon Typestar 5III and 80 + Supplement: Calculator functions
Canon Typestar 6
Canon Typestar 6 (Japanese)
Canon Typestar 7
Canon Typestar 10
Canon Typestar 110II and 210
Canon Typestar 220



Columbia index no. 2

Columbia Bar-Lock: see Royal Bar-Lock

Commercial Visible no. 6

Commodore (Consul 1511)
Commodore 650 (from Machines of Loving Grace)

Consul 221
Consul 231 (English, German, Spanish, French)
Consul 232
Consul 233 (French)
Consul 1511
Consul 1518
Consul 1531
Consul Silent

Continental portable (German)

Corona 3 (earlier)
Corona 3 (1920)
Corona 3 accessories and supplies brochure (1920)
Corona Four (1924)
Corona Four
Corona Four (longer, ca. 1929)
Corona Four (Spanish)
Corona Special folding
Corona Zephyr
Corona Zephyr DeLuxe
Also see Smith-Corona

Coxhead DSJ

Crandall New Model

Crown index

Demountable no. 2 (1925)

Dial (Marx toy, ca. 1930)

Easy-writer 300 toy typewriter (AKA Buddy-L) (English, Spanish, French, German)

Emerson (text only, plus modern photos indicating operating parts)
Emerson (a more thorough original user's manual, with illustrations)

Empire no. 1 (transcribed by Ian Jerams from R. T. Nicholson, Mechanical Devices of the Typewriter, 1920)
Empire portable (Hermes Baby clone, AKA Empire Aristocrat) (1959)
Empire portable (Smith-Corona Skyriter)


Erika 3 folding (French)
Erika 5, aka Ideal
Erika 5 (German)
Erika 8 (German)
Erika 9 (German)
Erika 10
Erika 10 (German)
Erika 11 (German)
Erika 12
Erika 30 & 40
Erika 33 & 43
Erika 34 & 44 (German)
Erika 34/44/48/50/60 (Dutch)
Erika 41 (German, English, French)
Erika 48 (German, English, Spanish, 1985)
Erika 50/60 (German, Hungarian, Polish)
Erika 100/105 (German, English, French)
Erika 100-106 (German, English, French, 1982)
Erika 120 (Russian, Romanian, Czech)
Erika M (German, ca. 1937)
Erika M (German, 1939, with an English translation of controls diagram)

Everest 90 (ca. 1948)
Everest K2
Everest K2 De Luxe
Everest K3

Facit 1620
Facit T2 (1971)
Facit TP1
Facit TP1 (another version)
Facit TP1 (promotional brochure, 1960)
Facit TP2 (instructions)
Facit TP2 (promotional brochure & controls diagram)
see also Addo


Fox portable no. 1
Fox Sterling

Franklin no. 7 (courtesy of Peter Weil)
Franklin nos. 7 and 8 (courtesy of Peter Weil)

Gossen Tippa and Tippa Pilot
Gossen Tippa (German, ca. 1951)

Groma Combina (English)
Groma Combina (German)
Groma Gromina (German)
Groma Humber (Kolibri)
Groma Kolibri
Groma Kolibri (French)
Groma Kolibri (Polish)
Groma Kolibri promotional brochure
Groma Kolibri Luxus and Kolibri N
Groma Kolibri Luxus and Kolibri N (German)
Groma N and T (ca. 1953)

GSN Junior toy typewriter (German, English, French, Spanish)

H. G. Palmer portable (Smith-Corona Skyriter)

Halda portable


Hartford no. 2

Hammond 1
Hammond 2
Hammond Folding Multiplex

Hermes 8
Hermes 9
Hermes 9 (French)
Hermes 10 electric
Hermes 2000 (1956)
Hermes 2000 brochure
Hermes 2000 leaflet
Hermes 3000 (early style)
Hermes 3000 / Media 3 (early style)
Hermes 3000 (Spanish, early style)
Hermes 3000 / Media (1970s)
Hermes Ambassador
Hermes Ambassador (German, ca. 1970)
Hermes Baby (ca. 1950)
Hermes Baby (French, ca. 1954)
Hermes Baby (French, ca. 1960)
Hermes Baby Featherweight (1930s)
Hermes Baby S (1960s) (Portuguese, English, French, German, Spanish)
Hermes Rocket (1959)

Hispano-Olivetti M40 (1935) (Spanish)
Hispano-Olivetti Pluma 22 use instructions (Spanish)
Hispano-Olivetti Pluma 22 care instructions (Spanish)

IBM Model A (1953)
IBM Model A Executive (1953)
IBM Model B (1954)
IBM Model B (controls diagram)
IBM Model C
IBM Model C Executive (a couple of pages are missing)
IBM Model D (1967)
IBM Model D (1970)
IBM Model D Executive (1970)
IBM Personal Typewriter (1982)
IBM Selectric I (ca. 1961)
IBM Selectric I (1967)
IBM Selectric II and Correcting Selectric
IBM Selectric II
IBM Selectric III (1979)
IBM Selectric III (1985)
IBM Wheelwriter 1000 by Lexmark (1994)

Ideal 5 portable (Erika)

Imperial A
Imperial D
Imperial Good Companion (1936)
Imperial Good Companion Model T
Imperial Good Companion 3
Imperial Good Companion 4
Imperial Good Companion 5
Imperial Good Companion 6T
Imperial Good Companion 7
Imperial 55 (from
Imperial 60
Imperial 60 (controls diagram)
Imperial 66
Imperial 200 (made by Silver-Seiko)

Invicta portable

Japy P68 portable (French)
Japy portable: instructions for removing original packaging materials (French)
Japy Script (English) (also good for Amaya, Byron portable, Patria, Oliver Courier, Swissa, and Voss Privat)
Japy Script (French)

Kamkap: see Byron Junior

Kmart 300 Deluxe 12, made by Brother (English, German, French, Spanish, Dutch, Swedish)

Lambert no. 1 (French)
Lambert no. 3

Lyubava (Russian, 1990)

L.C. Smith nos. 1, 2, 5, and 6 (1914)
L. C. Smith no. 8 (1926)
L. C. Smith no. 8 promotional brochure and controls diagram (1928)

Manhattan (also valid for Remington Standard no. 2)

Maritsa 11

Marx Dial (ca. 1930)
Marxwriter (1965)


Mercedes 3 (German)
Mercedes 6 (control diagram, English)
Mercedes Elektra (German)
Mercedes Prima and Superba (German)


Mignon 4 (French)
Mignon 4 (German)


Montgomery Ward 712 (by Brother) (English, French, German, Spanish)

Nakajima small portable

National understroke

National no. 5 portable

Neckermann Brillant Junior (Groma Kolibri) (German)

Nippo (ca. 1960)
Nippo P-200

Noiseless (3-bank standard)
Noiseless Portable (1922)

Odell no. 4

Oliver 5 user manual; fingering method; "Your Final Typewriter" promotional brochure
Oliver 9 and 11
Oliver Courier (also applies to Amaya, Byron portable, Japy portable, Patria, Swissa, Voss Privat)
Oliver portable (flat style, made in England)

Olivetti Dora
Olivetti Editor 2: user's manual, brief instruction booklet, summary of characteristics, promotional brochure
Olivetti Editor 3C
Olivetti Editor 4 and 4 C summary of characteristics (1969)
Olivetti Editor 5 summary of characteristics (1969)
Olivetti Lettera 22
Olivetti Lettera 22 (British Olivetti, 1950)
Olivetti Lettera 22 (another version)
Olivetti Lettera 22 (French)
Olivetti Lettera 25 (Italian, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, English)
Olivetti Lettera 31
Olivetti Lettera 32 (1964)
Olivetti Lettera 32 (British Olivetti, 1965)
Olivetti Lettera 33 (1967)
Olivetti Lettera 35
Olivetti Lettera 35 (Italian, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, English) (1977)
Olivetti Lettera 36 (controls diagram)
Olivetti Lexikon 80 (Italian)
Olivetti Lexikon 82
Olivetti Lexikon 83 DL (1976)
Olivetti Lexikon 90 (Italian, French, English)
Olivetti Linea 98
Hispano-Olivetti M40 (1935) (Spanish)
Olivetti MP1 portable (ICO) (translated into English from German by John Cooper)
Olivetti MP1 portable (ICO) (German)
Olivetti MS 25 Premier Plus (AKA Royal MS 25 Premier Plus)
Olivetti portables (general manual applicable to many 1960s & later typewriters; in Italian, German, French, Spanish, English, and Portuguese)
Olivetti Praxis 48 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Olivetti Roma
Olivetti Studio 44
Olivetti Studio 45
Olivetti Studio 45 (Italian)
Olivetti Valentine
Olivetti Valentine (French)
Olivetti Ventura

Olympia catalogue (1957) — features of the SG1, SM3, SF, and Robust
Olympia miscellaneous promotional materials
Olympia typefaces

Olympia 99 (SF) (Japanese & English)
Olympia B12
Olympia Electric 35 promotional brochures
Olympia Electric 50
Olympia Orbis (SM1) (German)
Olympia-Plana (postwar)
Olympia Progress (Russian)
Olympia Regina de Luxe (English, French, German)
Olympia Report Electric (SKE)
Olympia SF (rounded body)
Olympia SF (angular body) ca. 1960
Olympia SG1
Olympia SG1 (Dutch)
Olympia SG3
Olympia SG3 (English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Serbo-Croatian)
Olympia SG3N
Olympia SG3 and SG3N brochures
Olympia SG3 Deluxe brochure
Olympia SKM brochure
Olympia SM2
Olympia SM2 (German)
Olympia SM3
Olympia SM3 (German)
Olympia SM3 sales demonstration: script for a salesman
Olympia SM4
Olympia SM4 (different version)
Olympia SM5
Olympia SM7
Olympia SM8
Olympia SM9 (1960s)
Olympia SM9 (1970s)
Olympia SM9 brochure
Olympia Socialite brochure
Olympia Splendid 33
Olympia Splendid 66: version 1, version 2
Olympia Traveller
Olympia Traveller (Japanese & English)
Olympia X-L12 or M-R12 electric (and promotional brochure)

Optima Elite (1959, English)
Optima Elite (1958, German)
Optima Elite (1959, German)
Optima M10 (1959, German)
Optima P1 (German) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Optima Super (name variant of Erika 10) (1961)

Orga Privat (German, ca. 1930)

Ortekh (Russian)

H. G. Palmer portable (Smith-Corona Skyriter)

Panasonic KX-R310
Panasonic KX-W1000

Patria, Amaya, Meteor (made in Spain) -  (also good for Byron portable, Japy portable, Oliver Courier, Swiss Patria, Swissa, Voss Privat)

Penncrest Caravelle 10 and 12 (5 series) (by Smith-Corona)
Penncrest Caravelle 10 and 12 (6 series) (by Smith-Corona)
Penncrest Concord 10 and 12 (by Smith-Corona)


Pittsburgh (aka Pittsburg) Visible No. 12


Practical no. 2 (Simplex)

Princess 100 (German)
Princess 200 (brochure with parts diagram)
Princess 200 (German)
Princess 300
Princess 400 (German)
Princess 500 (ca. 1974) (German)

Pullman (also known as American, Armstrong, etc.)

R. C. Allen (1951)
R. C. Allen VisOmatic (1958)

Rem-Blick (S.P.-Blick, i.e. Smith-Premier Blick, name variant of the Rem-Blick)
Remington Standard no. 2 & 4
Remington Standard no. 6 & 7
Remington Standard no. 10 & 11 (1910)
Remington 3B
Remington 11 portable (ca. 1960)
Remington 17 (1939)
Remington 17 (1945)
Remington 333
Remington Fleetwing
Remington Junior (1934)
Remington KMC
Remington KMC (controls diagram)
Remington Letter-Riter
Remington Letter-Riter DeLuxe
Remington Mark II (1966)
Remington Noiseless Portable
Remington Noiseless 7 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Remington Noiseless 8 and 9 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Remington Noiseless 10 (ca. 1940)
Remington Noiseless 10 (ca. 1950)
Remington Noiseless 10 (1952)
Remington Personal-Riter (1968)
Remington portable #1 (1922)
Remington portable #2
Remington portable #3
Remington portables with noiseless action (1936): includes Remington Rand Model 1, Remington Noiseless Portable, Remington Noiseless 7 & 8, Remington No. 9
Remington portables (1940): includes Streamline Model 5, Deluxe Junior, Remette, Deluxe Noiseless, Model 7 Noiseless, Remington Rand Model 1, and Remington Premier
Remington portables (1960s) (English, French)
Remington Quiet-Riter manual and touch typing instructions (1951)
Remington Quiet-Riter (1955)
Remington Quiet-Riter and Remington portable without tab (1953)
Remington Quiet-Riter and Letter-Riter (1950s)
Remington-Rand Line-A-Time copy holder (1942)
Remington Rand Model 1 (1933)
Remington Rand Two-Tone Deluxe (no. 5) Portable (late 1940s)
Remington Rem-ette (1938)
Remington Rem-Riter
Remington Standard (no. 19)
Remington Super-Riter
Remington Ten Forty
Remington Ten Forty (shorter version, English and French)
Remington Travel-Riter (1950s)
Remington Travel-Riter Deluxe (1960s)
Remington Victor S and T, 1936 (AKA streamlined model 5 portable)
Rem-Rand Bantam

Revere: see Byron Junior

Rex Visible

Rheinmetall portable, 1930s (German)
Rheinmetall KsT

Robotron 24 (German, Russian, Polish, Czech, Romanian, Hungarian, Croatian)

Rooy Intermédiaire (French)
Roxy (Rooy ultraflat portable)

Royal 10 instruction manual and instruction leaflet, 1920s
Royal 10 manual/brochure, ca. 1915
Royal 240 portable (aka Marksman, Astronaut) (English, French, German, Spanish)
Royal Aristocrat (1957)
Royal Arrow (1941)
Royal Arrow (1949)
Royal Caravan
Royal Century
Royal Companion (1957)
Royal Companion CD (ca. 1940)
Royal Diana (earlier)
Royal Diana (later)
Royal Eldorado
Royal Electress
Royal Electric (1950s, earlier)
Royal Electric (1950s, later)
Royal Electric Portable (1970s)
Royal Emperor (1963)
Royal Empress
Royal Epoch
Royal FP (1957)
Royal Futura
Royal Grand
Royal H
Royal HE electric (1960)
Royal HE electric (1960) (a different version)
Royal Heritage
Royal HH (1952)
Royal KH and KHM (1937)
Royal KMG (controls diagram)
Royal KMM
Royal Mercury
Royal MS 25 Premier Plus (AKA Olivetti MS 25 Premier Plus)
Royal O portable (1936)
Royal O tabulator instructions
Royal O portable (Russian)
Royal P portable (1926)
Royal Parade (1963)
Royal portable (1926)
Royal portable (1930) (Print double-sided; cut the last two pages lengthwise and staple them to the lower half of the manual.)
Royal portables (1953) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Royal small portables (1965) (found with a Royal Pennant)
Royal Portable Electric (aka Apollo 10-GT, Apollo 12-GT, made by Silver-Seiko)
Royal Quiet De Luxe (1941)
Royal Quiet De Luxe (1948) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Royal Quiet De Luxe and Arrow (1949)
Royal Quiet De Luxe (1952)
Royal Quiet De Luxe (1965)
Royal Royalite
Royal Sabre and Custom III portables (1968)
Royal Safari (1964)
Royal Sahara and Caravan (= Adler Tippa) (English, French, German, Spanish)
Royal Scrittore II (2012, English/Spanish)
Royal Signet (early 1960s)
Royal Sprite or Mercury (and similar small Royals made in Japan)
Royal Standard (flatbed)
Royal UB portable (1940) (Here is a neat version retyped by Nick Bodemer)
Royal Ultronic

Royal Bar-Lock 10

Salter No. 7

Scheidegger Princess-Matic (Princess 300)

Sears 3000 Electronic Graduate (model 161.53020)
Sears Achiever (by Brother) (ca. 1980)
Sears Achiever (by Brother) (1983)
Sears Attache (by Smith-Corona)
Sears Celebrity (by Smith-Corona)
Sears Citation 2 (by Smith-Corona)
Sears Cutlass (by Smith-Corona)
Sears Electric 10 (by Smith-Corona)
Sears electric portable model 161.53201 (by Nakajima)
Sears Electric Twelve (by Smith-Corona)
Sears Electric Power 10 & Celebrity Power 12 (by Smith-Corona)
Sears Electronic Communicator
Sears Forecast 12 (by Smith-Corona)
Sears Malibu
Sears Medalist Power 12 & Electric Power 12 (by Smith-Corona)
Sears Newport
Sears President 12 (by Smith-Corona)
Sears The Scholar electric (by Nakajima)
Sears Tower President (by Smith-Corona)

Signature 100 (by Brother)
Signature 440T (by Brother, 1966)
Signature 510 and 513 (by Brother)
Signature 511D (by Brother, 1972)
Signature 511D with interchangeable type (by Brother)
Signature 1003D (electric by Brother)

Silver Reed 8650 electric (aka Silver-Seiko 6200)
Silver Reed EX-32 (from E. T. Zone)
Silver Reed SR 280 De Luxe

Silver-Seiko small portables (includes Silver-Reed, Imperial 200, and several small Royals) (English, French, German, Spanish)
Silver-Seiko electric: see Royal Portable Electric

Simplex: see Practical

Singer T-65 (by Smith-Corona)
Singer T-82 electric (by Smith-Corona)

Smith-Corona 250 electric
Smith-Corona Citation Electronic 100
Smith-Corona Classic
Smith-Corona Classic 12
Smith-Corona Coronamatic electrics (with ribbon cartridges)
Smith-Corona Corsair (1967)
Smith-Corona Coronet electric (1960s)
Smith-Corona Coronet XL electric (1980)
Smith-Corona Corsair Deluxe (1971)
Smith-Corona Cougar Deluxe
Smith-Corona Courier
Smith-Corona Deville Cartridge (user's manual and other literature, ca. 1970)
Smith-Corona Deville Deluxe (1980)
Smith-Corona Electra 12
Smith-Corona Electra 210 and 220
Smith-Corona electric portable (1957)w
Smith-Corona electric portables (ca. 1970)
Smith-Corona Enterprise
Smith-Corona floating shift portables (1937, "flattop" models)
Smith-Corona floating shift portables (1938, streamlined models)
Smith-Corona floating shift portables (1938, German)
Smith-Corona floating shift portables (1949)
Smith-Corona Galaxie (1960s)
Smith-Corona Galaxie II (1960s)
Smith-Corona Galaxie II (1960s), formatted for booklet printing—print double-sided on short side, then staple
Smith-Corona Golden Shield Courier
Smith-Corona Golden Shield Medallion
Smith-Corona Memory Correct III (1983)
Smith-Corona Memory Correct (1999)
Smith-Corona midsized portables (1951)
Smith-Corona midsized portables (1951), formatted for booklet printing — print double-sided on short side, then staple
Smith-Corona midsized portables (1970s)
Smith-Corona midsized portables (1976)
Smith-Corona Secretarial 300 (1971)
Smith-Corona Secretarial 315, Secretarial 415, Secretarial 250, and Secretarial 76 (1967)
Smith-Corona Silent-Super, Sterling, and Clipper (1958)
Smith-Corona Skyriter (1955)
Smith-Corona Skyriter (1960)
Smith-Corona standards (ca. 1950)
Smith-Corona Sterling (1963)
Smith-Corona Super-G
Smith-Corona Vantage controls diagram
Smith-Corona Wordsmith 100
Smith-Corona XL 1000
Smith-Corona 88
Smith-Corona 10-Day Touch-Typing Course (hi-res version of the file and audio for the course can be found here; audio is also on YouTube) (courtesy of John Munroe)

Smith Premier no. 1 (version 1)
Smith Premier no. 1 (version 2)
Smith Premier no. 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6
Smith Premier Tri-Chrome ribbon mechanism
Smith Premier no. 10

Sun index ("dogbone" style) (from Machines of Loving Grace)

Super deLuxe (Chinese version of the Brother JP-7)

Supermetall (1961, German)

Taylorix Contofix Junior (German)
Taylorix Contofix Junior (English translation)

Tom Thumb


Torpedo 18
Torpedo 18 (German)
Torpedo 30 (German)
Torpedo Super 6 (German)

Tower Chieftain (Olivetti) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Tower Chieftain II (Smith-Corona) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Tower Chieftain III (Smith-Corona)
Tower Citation 88 (Smith-Corona), 1962
Tower Commander (Smith-Corona), earlier
Tower Commander (Smith-Corona), later
Tower Quiet-Tabulator (Smith-Corona), 1956
Tower Tabulator (Underwood) ca. 1950
For many Tower (Sears-branded) models, see Smith-Corona or Underwood.

Toyo (sold under names including Alpina Baby, Condor, Jaguar, Rexina)

Triumph-Adler Contessa De Luxe (English, French, Dutch, Spanish)
Triumph-Adler Contessa 2 De Luxe (English, French, German, Spanish)
Triumph Norm and Perfekt
Triumph Perfekt (German)

Underwood (German, 1916)
Underwood 3, 4, and 5 (from Acme Instructor for the Underwood Typewriter, 1898)
Underwood 3, 4, and 5 (1920s?) (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Underwood 3, 4, and 5 (1929)
Underwood 3, 4, and 5 (1930)
Underwood 6 controls diagram (1937)
Underwood 18 (Antares) (French, English, German, Spanish, Italian)
Underwood 19 (Antares)
Underwood 21 (English, French, German, Spanish, Italian)
Underwood 315
Underwood All Electric
Underwood Champion portable (1938)
Underwood Champion portable (1946)
Underwood Champion and Universal portables (1948)
Underwood De Luxe Leader
Underwood De Luxe Leader (retyped by Nick Bodemer)
Underwood Deluxe Quiet Tab and Universal Quiet Tab
Underwood Finger-Flite (Champion and Universal) (1950s)
Underwood Golden-Touch portables (late 1950s)
Underwood Junior, Universal and Champion (Finnish)
Underwood Leader
Underwood Noiseless 77 (identical to Remington Noiseless Portable no. 7)
Underwood portable (3-bank keyboard)
Underwood portable (3-bank keyboard), earlier version, controls diagram 
Underwood portable (4-bank keyboard, 1929)
Underwood portable (1931)
Underwood Rhythm Touch DeLuxe
Underwood standard ca. 1950 (controls diagram)
Underwood SX 150
Underwood Touch-Master Five (1965)
Underwood Universal (1940)

Varityper (1940)
Varityper (Coxhead) DSJ
Varityper Differential Spacing Models
Student's Outline for Vari-Typer Operation
Varityper VT 3217 (1972)
Varityper typefaces (1967)

Victor index

Victor no. 3

Voss with decimal tabulator
Voss (German, 1960, explaining the 6 different models—courtesy of

Webster XL-800 with interchange language key
See also Brother

Wizard Truetype
See also Brother

Woodstock no. 5 (1920)
Woodstock and Woodstock Electrite (1926)

World index (1887)

Yost no. 4 (ca. 1897)

Young American (also known as American Visible)

Service manuals

Adler Special service manual (from Machines of Loving Grace)

Ames Typewriter Mechanical Training Manual, 1945, vol. 1, for Remington, Underwood carriage-shift, Royal, L.C. Smith, and Woodstock standard typewriters, by Clarence LeRoy Jones
Ames supplement on Underwood segment-shift standards
Ames supplement on Woodstock (later R.C. Allen) segment-shift standards
Ames Typewriter Mechanical Training Manual, 1945, vol. 2, for portables: cover and contents, Remington, Royal, Smith-Corona, Underwood
Ames Typewriter Mechanical Training Manual, 1945, vol. 3, for noiseless standards, by Byron L. Wolfe
Ames Basic Manual for Electric Typewriters, 1970, for Royal, Remington, Smith-Corona, Underwood, IBM Selectric, and IBM C and D
Ames Basic Training Manual for Standard Typewriters, 1968, for Royal, Underwood, Remington, Smith-Corona, Adler, Hermes, and Olympia

Barr service manual (1928)

Burroughs no. 50 manual service manual (1932)
Burroughs no. 60 electric service manual (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Burroughs Models 50 & 60 reference manual (from Machines of Loving Grace)

Hints for a Happy Typewriter by Bryan Kravitz (1983): general advice on typewriter care, with fun illustrations

Home Study Course in Typewriter Repair and Service: ca. 1959, published by the Typewriter Repair School in Little Falls, New Jersey. Focuses on the Royal KMM and IBM Model C, with a supplement on Remington electric adding machines.

IBM Models 01-10 Manual of Instruction (1939 with later additions)
IBM C-1 service manual
IBM C4 and C5 (Executive) service manual
IBM electrics service manual (1953)
IBM parts manual (1960)
IBM Selectric 71 & 72 parts catalog
IBM 72 I/O Reference and Adjustment Pocket Book

More IBM service manuals can be found on Bitsavers.

Kamkap service manual (from Mark Adams)

Mercedes standard service manual (text only, German)
Mercedes 3 parts

Olivetti Graphika service manual (Italian)
Olivetti Lexikon 80E service manual (Italian)
Olivetti Lexikon 90 service instructions
Olivetti M40 service manual (Italian)
Olivetti Praxis 48 service manual

Olympia electronic compact: see various service documents at Bitsavers.
Olympia SG1 service manual: text, illustrations
Olympia SG1 parts catalog and price list (1961)
Olympia SG3 parts catalog and price list (1964)
Olympia SM series service manual (1955)
Olympia SM1, SM2, and SM3 parts catalog and price list (1959)
Olympia SM9 parts catalog and price list (1964)

Remington Standard no. 2 service instructions, from Typewriter Secrets
Remington no. 17 service manual (1942) (from the collection of the late Bob Montgomery of Bremerton Office Machine Co.)
Remington Electric service manual (1960)
Remington Electri-Conomy service manual (1951)
Remington electric service manual (1960)
Remington KMC parts catalog (1947)
Remington KMC service manual (1949)
Remington Monarch portable service manual (1960)
Remington new style electric typewriter service manual (1956)
Remington Noiseless no. 10 parts catalog (1947)
Remington Noiseless no. 10 service manual (1936)
Remington Noiseless no. 10 service manual (1943) (from the collection of the late Bob Montgomery of Bremerton Office Machine Co.)
Remington Noiseless no. 10 service manual (1952)
Remington noiseless portables service manual (1944) (from the collection of the late Bob Montgomery of Bremerton Office Machine Co.)
Remington portable (non-noiseless) service manual (1931)
Remington standard service manual (1954)
Remington Super-Riter service manual (1951)
Remington Travel-Riter service manual (1960)
Remington 1953 parts catalog for portables AN (no tabulator), QR (Quiet-Riter), and ER (Office-Riter)
Remington 1953 service manual for portables AN (no tabulator), QR (Quiet-Riter), and ER (Office-Riter)

Royal 470 Field Adjustment and Check Out Guide (1972)
Royal 590/690/790/990/MII Field Adjustment and Check Out Guide (1973)
Royal P repair manual (1926) (also here)
Royal standards service manual, from Royal Typewriter Co. (1940s)
Royal Typewriter Maintenance and Repair (US Army & Air Force, 1955)

Smith-Corona 6 series electric portable and Electra 12 service manual
Smith-Corona electronic multipitch portables service manual (1983)

Textbook on Typewriter Repairing, by H. C. Frierson (1912) (vol. 2, illustrations, showing Underwood, Royal, Oliver, Smith Premier, L. C. Smith, Remington, Fox, and Monarch)

Typewriter Repair Training Course by Ralph S. Athey (1957)

Underwood service manual by H. G. Pearce (1920)
Underwood maintenance and repair (US Army, 1955)

Varityper (1965)

War Department Technical Manual TM 37-305: Typewriter Maintenance (1944). This is essentially the same as the 1945 Ames manual. This file uses digital fonts for the text.

Woodstock Adjustment Manual and Parts List, N580,000 and up (1942) (from the collection of the late Bob Montgomery of Bremerton Office Machine Co.)

Typing manuals

The ABC of Touch Typing (Royal, 1946)

Abridged Method of Typing (came with a Hermes Rocket, 1950s)

Learn Touch Typewriting in 4 hours at home (Star Sales Co., 1945)

Type Right Away! (Remington Rand, ca. 1960)

Typewriting Style Manual (South-Western Publishing Co., 1972)

Typing Better Letters (Royal, 1948)

Yost Typewriter Instructor, by Elias Longley (1891)


Codo Ribbon Aid (1960s): an illustrated guide to typewriter and adding machine ribbons and spools

Decimal Equivalents of Millimeters (1970): a service bulletin from Royal.

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